At Citeq, we offer two types of extracts from Alternaria Alternata, a fungus commonly found in soil, plants, and food. It is known to cause a range of plant diseases, but can also cause respiratory allergies in humans. Here, we will explore the difference between mycelium and growth medium in the context of Alternaria alternata. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of hyphae, which are thin, branching filaments. Mycelium grows by absorbing nutrients from its surroundings, and can spread over large areas. In the case of Alternaria alternata, mycelium can be found growing on plants, where it can cause disease. Medium, on the other hand, refers to the liquid in which a fungus is grown in a laboratory setting. Fungal media can vary depending on the needs of the particular fungus being studied, but generally contain a source of nutrients for the fungus to grow on. Common fungal media ingredients include agar, glucose, and yeast extract. In the case of Alternaria alternata, researchers may grow the fungus in a laboratory setting to study its behavior and characteristics. This may involve using a specific medium that provides the necessary nutrients for the fungus to grow and thrive. So, what is the difference between mycelium and growth medium in the context of Alternaria alternata? Mycelium refers to the physical structure of the fungus, while medium refers to the substance in which the fungus is grown in a laboratory setting. While mycelium may naturally grow on plants, in a laboratory setting, Alternaria alternata may be grown on a specific medium designed to support its growth. In conclusion, Alternaria alternata is a common fungus that can cause plant diseases as well as allergies in humans. Understanding the difference between mycelium and growth medium is important when studying this fungus in a laboratory setting. Like for other respiratory allergen sources, relevant allergens are most like mainly those proteins that readily go into solution when coming into contact with the respiratory mucosa. Those proteins are derived from the mycelium, but are in laboratory setting secreted into the growth medium. It is therefore very likely that harvested growth medium is a good source of proteins with relevance to allergy to Alternaria alternata.
We always make our batches as large as possible. We understand that you might need vials from a rather old batch for your research project. Some of our batches are mentioned in renowned literature and you use this as a guideline for your study. We do have a relatively large stock on some old batches, but some are (almost) running out. We have made an extensive comparison on our batches so you can easily pick a fresh batch that lives up to your standards. You can find yourself a comparable fresher batch here.
At Citeq we always strived for academic collaborations and personal contact. We noticed that some of our customers just want an easy and fast way to order. For those of you we have launched our sister company: Alfateq. On this website we offer a selection of Citeq's bestsellers in small vials. We also have several chemicals such as Trolox. Feel free to take a look at this website. Of course we continue the service of Citeq as you are used to in the same way. Click here to go to the Alfateq website.
We cultivate our moulds in a liquid media. In this media we inoculate the mold. During 4- 12 weeks of cultivation the molds are growing and in this media the mycelium is formed in the liquid. We separate the liquid and the mycelium. The liquid is directly filtrated in a biohazard surrounding with end filter 0.45 µm. This filtered liquid is dialysed with a volatile buffer, so after freeze drying a minimum amount of salts is available. The mycelium is extracted with a 1 % phenol buffer, extensively mixed and filtrated with an end filter of 0.45 µm. The liquid is dialysed against a volatile buffer and freeze dried.
The mycelium is mixed with an extraction buffer. Our effective component in the mycelium extraction is phenol, in a concentration of 1 %. We mix the buffer with the mycelium and filtrate this with our last filter is a 0.45 µm filter. We dialysed the filtrated liquid with a volatile buffer, so after freeze drying a minimum amount of salts is available. With this you can use every buffer you prefer in reconstitution the freeze dried product.
The freeze dried material is not infectious and does not contain spores.
Medium: The extracted medium of the mould, the mould feeds on this medium. We filtrate the medium so no spores are available, concentrate and dialyse the medium.
Mycellium: We extract the mycelium with a specific buffer, filtrate it, dialyse this and freeze dry it, this is the mycelium; part of the moulds.
Whole culture: A whole culture consist of all the material of the cockroach cultivation. This means cockroach bodies, eggs, larves, cultivation medium and the faeces. Delivered in total dry weight.
Extract of whole culture: the whole culture which is extracted. A whole culture consist of all the materials of the cultivation, including bodies, eggs, larvae, skin parts, cultivation medium and the excrements. This is the regular extract which is the most used by researchers. Delivered in total dry weight.
Our products will be delivered in freeze-dried (lyophilised) form. Before freeze drying the products are dialysed in a volatile buffer. This results in salt free end product. You can dissolve the product in a buffer of your choice.
Mite bodies: purified mite bodies, these do not contain other material such as the faeces of the mites. Delivered in total dry weight.
- Whole culture: A whole culture consist of all the material of the house dust mite cultivation. This means mite bodies, eggs, larves, cultivation medium and the faeces. Delivered in total dry weight.
- Extract with low level of endotoxin: the same as our regular extract of whole culture but with a low level of endotoxin. Delivered in total dry weight.
- Purified Group 1 allergen (Der p 1 or Der f 1). Based on protein content (BCA).
- Purified Group 2 allergen (Der p 2 or Der f 2). Based on protein content (BCA).
- Extract of whole culture: the whole culture which is extracted. A whole culture consist of all the materials of the cultivation, including bodies, eggs, larvae, skin parts, cultivation medium and the excrements. This is the regular extract which is the most used by researchers. Most of the allergens are in the purified excrements, which we also have in our product assortment. Whole culture is however mostly used for research purposes.
- Extract of mite bodies: purified mite bodies which are extracted, this does not contain other material such as the faeces of the mites. Delivered in total dry weight.
- Excrements: the purified excrements (faeces/ droppings) of the house dust mites. We have excrement extracts available from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. Delivered in total dry weight.
- Small vial extract: Regular HDM extract but not filled out on dry weight but on protein content (BCA). These are small vials which are developed for researchers.
Improper reconstitution of lyophilized (freeze-dried) allergenic extracts can cause variations in allergen content of the same extract after reconstitution and should be avoided. On this page we report on the solubility of lyophilized Alternaria alternata medium extract.
Purified allergens gives a defined product. The House dust mite extract contains a total mixture of proteins with proteins which don’t give an allergic reaction. With a defined mixture the disadvantage could be that some allergens are not available, although the defined allergens e.g. Der p 1 and Der p 2 give a reaction in a mouse model comparable to the HDM extract.
Our allergens are purified with classical biochemical methods with columns based on different binding capacities and our last step is a size exclusion column. After this last step our products are freeze dried.
We can deliver excrements of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. The main source of house dust mite allergy is excrements and we have collected the excrements. Please contact us for more information.
Our products are for research purposes only and will be delivered in freeze-dried (lyophilized) form. Our extracts are not suitable to be used for immunotherapy and in-human use. We produce our House dust mite products to conform the regulations source materials. For more information, exhibit Table 1, on page 7 here.
Citeq produces moulds with shaking incubation. The product is a result of filtration of the mycelium and spores. This filtrated medium is concentrated, dialysed and freeze-dried. With this method the freeze dried end product, contains only products produced by the moulds. It contains no medium and no spores. Due to concentration and dialysis there is a good amount of proteins in the product available.
In our production process we do not add any proteins. The only compound we use in our products which is not strictly from mites is the medium where the mites feed on. This medium contains an absolute low number of non-mite proteins and these concentrations will not interfere with your process.
We recommend to use a PBS buffer.
Yes, you can read further instructions on this page.
Yes. Often we receive similar questions about house dust mite animal models from our clients. Therefore we have collected data regarding several animal models from research performed at different universities. For more information, please follow this link. Here you can find a table where you can read about different known allergic asthma protocols and their results. The overview can be used as an indication which allergic asthma protocol to use for your own research.